Evaluating Municipal Recycled Water Usage in Concrete Mixes


Eliza Jane Whitman1, PE, LEED AP, ENV SP, Flor Burrola2, Edward Arrington3, SE, ENV SP, Ray Soloman4, PE, Lenise Marrero2, PE

1 EW Consulting, Inc.
2 City of LA- Wastewater Engineering Services Division
3 City of LA – Bureau of Engineering
4 City of LA – General Services Department


Due to the California drought, there has been an effort to evaluate opportunities to decrease potable water demand. Recycled Water (RW) is derived from the City’s Wastewater Reclamation Plants and is highly regulated. Using RW for concrete production, can save both energy and money, and reduce dependence on potable water supplies. The topic of RW in concrete arose as a result of an internal One Water LA discussion between two City departments, LASAN and LA World Airports. The goal was to determine the viability for the City before recommending this approach to management. An effort was undertaken by members of City Departments who have jurisdiction over RW use for design and construction projects in the City and by City departments. The initial efforts focused on the water quality requirements.  Other information was collected on State regulatory requirements as well as code compliance, particularly for construction practices.

KEYWORDS: Concrete, recycled water, drought, offsetting potable water, cost effective, policy, construction, ready mix companies


The City of Los Angeles proper, home to four-million people, is developing the One Water LA 2040 Plan, which is an integrated approach for water supply, recycled water, wastewater treatment, and stormwater management. It builds upon the success of the City’s Integrated Resources Plan, or IRP (2000-2020) to plan towards 2040 for all types of water needs by City departments and regional entities who work in the City, as well as the commercial, industrial and residential sectors. The City of Los Angeles is developing the One Water LA 2040 Plan which is an integrated approach for water supply, wastewater treatment, recycled water, and stormwater management.

To read or download the complete report, click here.

To view the PDF of the WEFTEC-2016 Recycled Water in Concrete Mixing presentation, click here.


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